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Classical Chinese and vernacular Chinese

Classical Chinese and vernacular Chinese

Monday,Sep 25, 2023
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 The statement forms a dual subject to some conditions There are rough and fine antitheses Rough means that there are few conditions to be satisfied; fine means that there are many conditions to be satisfied Let's start with the rough or low requirements There are two conditions One belongs to the aspect of meaning which is that the meaning of two words (or two words) is different individuals stainless steel hydraulic fitting in the same class For example "mountain" and "tree" "fly" and "look" "poor" and "rich" can all be classified into the same category expressed in grammatical terms which belong to nouns verbs and adjectives respectively "Shan" cannot be opposite to "Shan" and "Fu" cannot be opposite to "Fu" except for empty words such as "Zhi" "Er" and "Yi" which can be used together for two opposite sides (except for regulated poems and couplets where empty words are not allowed to be used together) The other condition in terms of sound is that the number of words in the western part of the antithesis is equal that is the number of syllables is equal For example "yuan" can be used for "Ze" but "Furong" can not be used for "Liu"

The reason why this requirement can be put forward and is not difficult to meet is that Chinese has the characteristics of one word representing one syllable and the vast majority of classical Chinese words are monosyllabic; if the syllables of words are not symmetrical it is difficult to meet this requirement The same meaning and the same 12 needle valve number of syllables are low requirements Early roughly pre-Qin Han or later because this writing is generally not intended so the formation of most of the dual can not meet this low requirement Such as (1) Those who get the right way have much support while those who lose the right way have little support (Mencius Gongsun Chou II) (2) When the superior man walks on the road he is happy to forget his worries; when the inferior man is full of body he says (pleases) to forget his sins (Yang Yun's Letter to Sun Huizong) (3) Outside there is no strong and close relative and inside there is no one who is five feet away from the door (Li Mi's Petition Table) Examples (1) and (2) both use the same word Example (3) Not only the same word is used but also the general meaning of "Qi Gong Qiang Jin" and "Ying Men Wu Chi" is relative not the meaning of each word Sometimes it can be worse Such as (4) The blue is taken from the blue and the blue is taken from the blue; the ice is made from water and the ice is made from water (Xun Zi · Encouraging Learning) (5)

It is the intention of the common people for the emperor to seek wealth and profit and to be constantly afraid of scarcity It is the intention of the great officials for the emperor to seek benevolence and righteousness and to be constantly afraid of not being able to transform the people (Dong Zhongshu's Xianliang Countermeasures III) This is only to seek the relative meaning of the total but to give up the equal number of words During this period sometimes there is a better match which is only a coincidence Such as (6) King Yan was benevolent and righteous but Xu perished; Zi Gong argued for wisdom but Lu cut down (it used to be an oblique tone) (Han Feizi Five Beetles) (7) Encompass the meaning of the four seas and swallow the heart of the eight wastelands (On Crossing the Qin Dynasty by Jia Yi) The early antithesis in addition to rough but not refined needle valve manufacturer also has a characteristic that it is used in the loose body and is in a subsidiary position Such as (8) I have heard that those who are perfect will prosper and those who are imperfect will perish Shun did not have a place to set up a cone to have the world Yu did not have ten households to gather with the king's princes Tang Wu's land was no more than a hundred Li and those who did not break the light of the three lights and did not hurt the hearts of the people had Wang Shu Therefore the way of father and son is natural

If meritorious officials do not avoid heavy punishment to remonstrate directly they will have no remaining strategies and their achievements will last forever Chen Cheng is willing to put on his belly and follow the example of blind loyalty but the king adds less meaning and reads the heart of compassion in Chen Cheng's words (Mei Cheng's Letter to the King of Wu) This passage uses a lot of antitheses but when we read it we will always feel that these are all handy so that they serve the narrative prose and there is a great distance from the later parallel style of words and sentences 573 Duality of a doublet There are high requirements for the couple and the conditions that need to be met are more detailed One of the conditions also belongs to the aspect of meaning which is that the two relative words can be classified not only into a large category but also into a small category Taking the names of things as an example "flower" and "horse" can be classified into the category of nouns; "flower" and "grass" can be classified not only into the category of nouns but also into the subcategory of plants in nouns Good duality requires that the opposite two words preferably belong to a subclass Another condition also belongs to the sound aspect which is that the two parts of the dual should not only have the same number of words but also have different tonal patterns of the opposite words The so-called difference in tonal patterns mainly refers to the character that occupies an important position in rhythm

Regulated poetry for example takes two syllables as a unit with emphasis on the latter syllable so "beacon fire" (flat tone) can be used for "family letters" (flat tone) not for "valley water" (oblique tone) The same is true of the antithesis of the text but there are some changes due to the different structure of the sentence such as "looking at Chang'an in the sun referring to Wu Hui in the clouds" (Wang Bo's Preface to Tengwang Pavilion) focusing on the third and sixth characters rather than the second character of two syllables In the Wei and Jin Dynasties there were already signs of refinement in terms of voice requirements such as "walking is connected with the public stopping is connected with the seat (the old oblique voice)" (Cao Pi's "Book with Wu Zhi") "leaning on the south window to express pride examining the knees (the old oblique voice) of Yi'an" (Tao yuanming's "Gui Qu Lai Ci") all of which seem to have traces of carving But this is to rely on perceptual groping that is as Shen Yue said "Gao Yan wonderful sentence rhyme Tiancheng all dark and reasonable bandits from thinking to"

(Biography of Xie Lingyun in the Book of Song Dynasty) Therefore it is inevitable that sometimes it is right and sometimes it is not right In the Qi and Liang Dynasties of the Southern Dynasties the situation was different Inspired by the Sanskrit Pinyin in Buddhist scriptures Shen Yue and others created four tones and eight diseases Since then the requirements for the coordination of tonal patterns and their theoretical basis have become more and more obvious and the antithesis has been carefully crafted Meticulous refinement is an attempt to satisfy both the conditions of meaning and sound However the binding force of these two conditions is different in terms of meaning it is "best" to belong to the same subcategory that is to say it is also possible not to do so; in terms of sound the difference in tonal patterns is "necessary" otherwise it is against the rules and regulations
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